Research Question 2: What important developments in educational technology are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established technologies that some educational institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What technologies that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should educational institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that learning-focused institutions should begin to take notice during the next 4 to 5 years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Added as New Topics to RQ1

Artificial Intelligence
I believe this topic was here before. Maybe with recent developments it can be added. "AI methods plan your driving directions, filter your spam, and focus your cameras on faces. AI lets you guide your phone with your voice and read foreign newspapers in English. Beyond today's applications, AI is at the core of many new technologies that will shape our future. From self-driving cars to household robots, advancements in AI help transform science fiction into real systems." (Taken from an AI course offered on EdX.) - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015
I agree that this technology is relevant to add to the list. Perhaps we should split it some subareas (robotics, expert systems….)? - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 20, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 20, 2015
Ten roles of artificial intelligence in education jmorrison jmorrison Feb 20, 2015
AND Data-Driven Communications at Machine Scale
Powered by Artificial Intelligence, Quill is our patented automated narrative generation platform for the enterprise that goes beyond reporting the numbers—it creates perfectly written narratives to convey meaning for any intended audience. Quill excels where data visualizations fall short; it adds value to data by identifying relevant data points and relaying them through professional, conversational language. The result? Narratives that efficiently communicate the insights buried in Big Data that people can comprehend, act on and trust. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 7, 2015

Biometric Technologies - jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015
Biometrics for students paying: jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015
States backtrack... jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015
State Legislatures Grapple with Biometrics in Schools. jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015

Games for Formative Assessment
We're retired "games and gamification" but I believe that we are missing a larger emerging topic of ASSESSMENT and how formative assessment in particular intersects with games and game features. Here's a new study by the University of Michigan and NYU that was funded by Gates - that examined that intersection point across 500 teachers. The A-GAMES Project. The second part of that research will be out soon - and it examined specific game features - not games in general, but in the weeds - of how certain game features support improved formative assessment feedback via a close examination of 30 classrooms. I think it warrants a close look. It was fueled in part by the Games Jam at the White House and is getting political support. - kstubbs kstubbs Feb 18, 2015 agree - drjrankin drjrankin Feb 22, 2015 Thanks for the new perspective re the intersects. Maybe there is an intersection in the Venn diagram of games, badges and formative assessment within games. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 18, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015

Programming/CodingMore and more, schools are teaching students the computer science and programming skills at a younger age as the next few generations of learners are responsible for advancing the field of robotics to aid with pressing local and global issues. - Sam Sam Feb 13, 2015 I agree, Sam. Computer science and programming skills are becoming more prevalent in schools and curriculum/programs are becoming more accessible for teachers/students to use and incorporate. Robotics and programming are also high-interest for young students. - cbsteighner cbsteighner Feb 14, 2015 The rise of and the Lego evolution from NXT to EV3 suggest both have a place in education. One recent development I came across that maybe the future of robotics and integrating students: mtaylor mtaylor Feb 15, 2015 I agree, they should be split into two. - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 Also look at this site about the new coding literacy: - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 16, 2015 I agree Coding, ITAcademy, and Robotics should be included as a topics - kayj kayj Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 We just need to be careful that a minimalist approach is not taken to this as when attending the BETT event in London recently, I was a little taken aback at the number of stands that had developed "robotic arms" etc as a "solution" for exploring robotics and a means of doing "coding". Many of these of course were motivated by the introduction of coding to the UK school curriculum. This is definitely a big topic that is coming in more and more. It is more about getting things to do what we want not having to do what the technologies confine us to doing - you can quote me on that. :-) I have a Nao humanoid robot and the STEM opportunities are wonderful. - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015- apowell apowell Feb 20, 2015- digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015
Robotics refers to the design and application of robots — a form of artificial intelligence. This technology is not new, and the field is filled with examples of machines built for highly practical functions, such as lifting and moving heavy objects as well as for intellectual purposes, including assisting people with research and organisation. In both cases, the goal of robots is to streamline and automate processes to make them far more efficient than if conducted by people. While robotics is at least four years away from being in mainstream use across K-12 education, the potential applications are vast. In some examples, students with spectrum disorders are more comfortable working with robots to develop better social, verbal, and non-verbal skills. The use of robotics in education and its clear implications for improving workflows in the global economy also lends itself to the development of robotics.

Universal Design
- jon.k.price jon.k.price Feb 20, 2015 I know this isn't a "technology" but if you look into what CAST is exploring to design a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn - it will help address meaningless technology waste. I think this is VERY important as well - Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015 Fundamentally important as how learning environments are designed decides how technologies will be used - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015It's also critical to understanding the role that technologies have in removing barriers that any student can experience.- mike.jamerson mike.jamerson Feb 22, 2015

Virtual Reality
Also 3D, Virtual Reality technology should be added to your visualization category. We must be careful not to miss this one. Why? Here's why: We're not done with it yet: think about it in in this way: 1) Facebook just bought Oculus Rift for 2 billion dollars; 2) Google just invested a half billion dollars in Magic Leap (; 3. The giant 3D entertainment company Legend3D just opened an entire division dedicated to 3D virtual reality. Sense-making question: all these behemoths are going to compete head-to-head in what arena? In 3D virtual reality. Of course, the umbrella category is again 3D visualization. (BTW, all these categories are merging). Also, see my WIKI notes in the 3D video category. This category is misnamed and miscategorized, and should be included in the visualization category.- len.scrogan len.scrogan Feb 16, 2015 There is also the VR One that has just come out and it is great (I have one) - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 18, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015- claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 It's still a few years out at least, but VR is going to impact education based upon how rapidly it's advancing. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015 Google Cardboard is reaching schools and better yet, students are making their own sets- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015

Combined with Existing RQ 1 Important Developments in Ed Tech Topics

Adaptive Learning Technologies
Computer adaptive assessment (CAA): - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Feb 1, 2015 the addition of intelligence so that the selection of test tasks is related to the characteristics of each individual. The test adapts to each person by using a computer algorithm to tailor the test to each specific examinee, based on what test makers regard as the most important characteristics. SBAC plans to use this type of testing for innovative assessment. CAA can use the current level of achievement, so that each student takes a different test tailored to their ability level as determined by the software. This approach works particularly well where a wide range of student abilities exist, as in statewide assessments. In traditional paper tests many items are wasted on individual students being either too easy or too hard. The precision of CAA allows for shorter and more effective testing, and can also provide more diagnostic data on specific areas of student weakness. CAAs are complex and creating and maintaining a well-constructed item pool represents an important challenge. CAA requires more test items than a traditional test. Stopping rules determine when and where to stop the test. If computers are to be used in testing, it seems wise to add intelligence to the process (CAA). Computer assessment will come; it is only a matter of when and how. (Reckase 2011, 1-3; 5; 10) Work Cited: Reckase, Mark D. “Computerized Adaptive Assessment (CAA): The Way Forward.” Policy Analysis for California Education and Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy. (May 2011). The Road Ahead for State Assessments. MA: Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy. Web. 15 November 2014. Many very big American teaching universities, including MIT, Harvard and Stanford have created samples of such solutions in the hope that the new Common Core framework (STEM-side) once adopted, could implement these creative and functional systems. Basically the US government would need to accept these concepts and fund them for the best success. The final line by Reckase is important, this will come, and it could be a huge bonus to teachers, allowing the assessment of items never possible before.- davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015agree- digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015In Denmark we have used CAA with success for a couple of years in our national examinations (Biology and Geography), lower secondary education - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 [Editor's Note: This already an existing topic in RQ1 so we have added these comments there.]

We're already getting used to using haptics on tablets, but they have many more uses in interactive learning experiences, according to a recent MIT Technology Review article. - marcia.mardis marcia.mardis Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ1 topic Natural User Interfaces.]

Holograms: HoloLens Console/Holographic Headset. Hologram was a big buzzword a few years ago, then it faded...but now the technology is catching up with the, reality. ;) Do holograms deserve a category of their own, or are they to be lumped in with Augmented/Virtual Reality? - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 8, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ1 topic Volumetric and Holographic Displays]

Internet of Things - Sensors
I believed there was a comment about adding Internet of Things (IoT) but I would also like to add Sensors maybe as a subtopic. Not sure where but I feel these are very important and students should understand what data they are collecting and how they work. - kayj kayj Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015 See "Networked Objects" in RQ1 - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ1 topic Networked Objects]
Motion Capture Systems
...and virtual production for creative story telling in classrooms. These systems are beginning to become affordable for K-12 schools that wish to specialise in this form of "animation" production. In the short term, this is most likely to occur in upper secondary schools, perhaps with specialist media production courses. Motion capture fundamentally changes the way animations / 3D models can be created. See for an instance of a company that supplies systems for the education market. See the following as an example of a University making motion capture technology available to secondary school students: - dezuanni dezuanni Feb 20, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ1 topic Natural User Interfaces.]

Added to RQ3 as a Trend

Growing use of Blended Learning
Not a technology per se, and with some overlap with 1:1, but this framework of instruction is poised to be one of the most influential in recent history. There are issues with any discussion of blended learning, such as the dramatically divergant models that all fall under the umbrella, but a seamless integration of "traditional" instruction, digital content, and new instructional strategies (like gamification, project-based learning, and "Genius Hour" (based on Google 20% time)) is a recipe for success and something that districts can get started on now with a minimum number of devices available.- shorr shorr Feb 17, 2015 - apowell apowell Feb 20, 2015Yes....and with 'new courses' developing such as Big Data, drones, entrepreneurship, how to market your personal brand–YOU, and other emerging learning spaces, we need to view how blending learning and internships coupled with new technologies will become a part of the new narrative in education. I'm not sure how common core fits into this new educational landscape. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 18, 2015- Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ3 Trend "Increasing Use of Hybrid and Blended Learning Models.]

Increasing Online Global Collaboration
(I see this as being placed under the 'Digital Strategies' umbrella as it is not a technology per se but an approach to teaching and learning while using digital technologies, as is 'flipped learning' and 'blended learning'). Definition: Online global collaboration broadly refers to geographically dispersed educators, classrooms, schools and other learning environments that use online technologies to learn with others beyond their immediate environment in order to support curricular objectives, intercultural understandings, critical thinking, personal and social capabilities and ICT capabilities. In addition......Innovative pedagogies are emerging to support online global collaboration and new tools, specifically Web 2.0 technology tools are continuing to develop to support learners to connect, communicate, collaborate, and co-create or co-produce. This area of online digital technology use is not as widely understood or implemented as is 'flipped' ideals but is becoming more important each year as students and teachers across the world get better access to technologies that will allow them to connect and collaborate beyond their immediate learning environment. This blog post (please disregard the promotion for Flat Connections) helps to share how important this is and barriers and enablers for K-12 learning: This article shares some background:
Dillenbourg, P., Järvelä, S. & Fischer, F. (2009). The evolution of research on computer-supported collaborative learning. Technology-enhanced learning, 3-19. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9827-7_rnal of Compute1 This paper also 'sets the scene'
Laurillard, D. (2009). The pedagogical challenges to collaborative technologies. International Jour-Supported Collaborative Learning, 4(1), 5-20. doi: 10.1007/s11412-008-9056-2 See also 'Flat Students - Flat Learning - Global Understanding'
- lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Great points! This reads more like a trend and will therefore be added to RQ3.]

Open Education Resources
It was in the 2014 report, but I don't see it directly mentioned so far. With the proliferation of online and blended learning, open learning objects and repositories seem to be more and more necessary.- anton.inglese anton.inglese Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits in with existing RQ3 Trend "Proliferation of Open Educational Resources" and will be added to that discussion.]

Outdoor Activities
This might be standalone topic or part of many others. Outdoor activities shows that technology is not just for "inside". There are already lots of Apps that can be used, and with hope that will be more ( Great example is University of Madison project Sustainable U ( - nada4web nada4web Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ3 trend "Shift to Deeper Learning Approaches."]

Combined with Existing Challenges in RQ4

This is not a completely new category, but a new way of evaluating a group of separate categories on this wiki. I believe that we are approaching a new maturity level in device, information, content and instruction. This is enabled by a confluence of factors from BYOD, Cloud, Adaptive Learning, Learning Analytics, Social Tools, Collaboration Tools, and Learning Management Systems. The opportunities of each of these systems when viewed individually is an evolutionary step forward. However, when leveraged as a cohesive system it will enable completely new learning opportunities and experiences for our students. It will enable new instructional strategies. It has the potential to significantly improve student outcomes. I believe this is a overall strategy that many of us are evaluating and believe we should give Personalization a separate future category or grouping. - gtdeyoung gtdeyoung [Editor's Note: Combined with existing RQ4 Challenge Personalizing Learning]

Other Key Points and Links

Smart Drugs. Not a technology gadget, but like Olympic athletes, people are beginning to rethink 'smart drugs.' Nootropics, which are more commonly referred to as cognitive enhancers or smart drugs, have become increasingly popular since the 1970s. These compounds may increase cognitive function, which generally refer to natural supplements or nutrients. Surveys have found that up to 11 percent of U.S. students use nootropics on a regular basis, and some of the top entrepreneurs from Silicon Valley are now publically opening up about their interest in these products. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 8, 2015

HP's "The Machine". The first new computer architecture in 70 years with the potential to revolutionize computing. Can calculate 640TB in 250ns - shorr shorr Feb 17, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015 [Editor's Note: Great example! We don't list products as Horizon Project topics though.]

Community Colleges
While not a technology per se, I think we'd be remiss if we didn't somehow consider the role in which community colleges are being cast in the future of technology and learning. They are sites of credit forward, credit recovery, and program completion but also of credentialing that allows stacking and latticing, career retraining, and creation of a tailored, local workforce that supports a local economy. In many ways, community colleges have had to use entrepreneurial and start-up like tactics to survive. With the current federal and state focus on 2 and 4 yr institutions in preparing students for entry level STEM jobs, there's something here for the Horizon Report. - marcia.mardis marcia.mardis Feb 22, 2015

Connecting the Dots
So many of the technologies listed are parts of a whole. assessments [computer adaptive assessment, games] would be used to obtain data [learning analytics] that is useful to teachers to help inform instruction. The data would need to be organized for ease of use [data visualization]. Then teachers would need to produce differentiated content [flipped classrooms, open source content] for students in which they could demonstrate mastery [electronic badges]. The dilemma- how do you connect everything? in order for all of these technologies to be integrated you need universal tagging system. UTS would be flexible to have multiple tagging conventions. If you used the common core standards the following example would work. the data from the assessments would benchmark student achievement in specific standards. teachers could then search and obtain open source content (including videos) and deliver it to students. These assignments could be graded and organized by standards thereby creating electronic portfolios for students. teachers would have electronic grade books by standards- these grade books could organize student performance by standard and recommend specific differentiated work to each student depending on his/her need. (the open source content could be searched to find appropriate work by standard). As students complete these assignments new data is generated and sent back to the grade book to inform further instruction. if the UTS is robust you could substitute standard and use a skill instead or content. The proliferation of 1;1 has increased the need for electronic content. So much is already created and is unsearchable in the cloud. [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler]

Neuroscience and Education - adrian_lim adrian_lim Feb 22, 2015

Automated Systems One joke around school is that if each kid had a chip in his/her head, no one would have to take attendance. ;) Hey, could accomplish the same thing when each kid logs into the network every morning. Assessment, e.g., grading essays, as mentioned above, would be another chore handled by hardware/software. Learning Analytics just another AI function...hard to worry about privacy when it's a computer versus a human being doing the "snooping." Imagine a Preventative Maintenance Internet of Things that would allow a, e.g., projector to announce when its bulb is about to fail. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 8, 2015 This is already available on the infrastructure monitoring side if you are willing to pay for it- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski Feb 23, 2015alex.podchaski
Course Accreditation. Perhaps this could be an automated system. Online learning presents a big opportunity and challenge. It makes education more accessible and affordable, and thus the elitists hate it passionately! As long as the decision process re: verifying, accepting, etc., credits is left up to humans, online learning will go nowhere. Educators who earned their degrees the traditional way will never accept that someone can attain their same level (of whatever?) with online degrees, even if -- oh, the irony -- their school offers online programs, even if the educators teach online courses themselves! True, the same biases could be built into the software, but if we make this a business versus education product impartiality could be reasonably assumed. No more arguing...the program would examine the course...yes or no. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015- Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015
I would prefer to see Robotics and Programming being being covered as separate entities. Whilst there is cross over, both exists in schools under their own individual rights. Numerous opportunities exist in SE Asia to be a part of programming AND robotics student conferences. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 16, 2015 [Editor's Note: Agreed. We have split them up. See Above.]
Rethinking Minimum Viable CoursesThe concept of the minimum viable product has been around for years. The Minimum Viable Course means classes could be produced in segments, with the topics of extreme interest up front...possibly with none to follow. Plenty of prototyping or wireframing tools to choose from. Imagine courses with no intros, no summations..."Just the facts, ma'am." ;) - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 8, 2015 [Editor's Note: Great Points! See Trends section-- RQ3-- for full response.]