Research Question 3: Key Trends Accelerating K-12 Technology Adoption

What trends do you expect to have a significant impact on the ways in which learning-focused institutions approach our core missions of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry?

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NOTE: The Key Trends are sorted into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term.

Short-Term Trends
These are trends that are driving edtech adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

Mid-Term Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Long-Term Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

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Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few complete sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!

Advancing Cultures of Change and Innovation
Many thought leaders have long believed that schools can play a major role in the growth of national economies. In order to breed innovation and adapt to economic needs, schools must be structured in ways that allow for flexibility, and spur creativity and entrepreneurial thinking. There is a growing consensus among many thought leaders that school leadership and curricula could benefit from agile startup models. Educators are working to develop new approaches and programs based on these models that stimulate top-down change and can be implemented across a broad range of institutional settings. In the business realm, the Lean Startup movement uses technology as a catalyst for promoting a culture of innovation in a more widespread, cost-effective manner, and provides compelling models for school leaders to consider. It's certainly being discussed here in Guatemala, for public schools versus private ones like ours. I don't know how much our developments hit the news in the USA, but Guatemalan public school teachers have been protesting for weeks: One of the many problems is that indigenous (Mayan) young people might get cut out of teacher training programs. Already something like 40% of the country's population is Mayan...and doesn't speak Spanish, so they can't participate in the economy. You wouldn't run a business this way, at least not for long. Some kind of sane intervention is needed. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 I really like the phrase "sane intervention". "There appears to be widespread agreement that schools should not only produce graduates proficient in an agreed-upon set of thinking and learning skills (like those embedded within the Common Core State Standards), but also students who work well together and are self-motivating, responsible learners with the ability to contribute to healthy enterprises, families, and communities." See this link: jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015 This is true in local Chinese schools. There is a trend to build courses outside of the curriculum and introduce them to the school as an 'elective.' For example, parents and students believe there are missing skills in the present Chinese curriculum, such as speaking/presentation skills, media literacy, service learning, etc. Outside companies are in the process of offering courses as an 'add-on' with the goal of having the course be a part of the 'regular' academic curriculum. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 13, 2015 This is also true in Brazil. In the private sector especially, newer models of schools are beginning to grow rapidly to provide the skills that society is demanding. - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 This is a very important point for several reasons. Firstly, education at large needs to be innovative in order to deliver on its role in national and regional innovation systems. Secondly, a culture of innovation also addresses other important preqrequisites for educational change, such as a culture of sharing and the importance of working from a solid knowledge base when innovating. A third feature is the need to investigating how innovations in one classroom can be scaled up.- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Feb 21, 2015 Social entrepreneurship as a curricula objective is emerging in different K-12 schools across the world. This includes building stronger links between schools and communities and businesses while using innovative ideas and digital technologies to build, share and promote. - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 Agree. There is a growing interest in this in European schools as well, many of our European and national documents contain the rhetoric of developing these capacities within the individual and the system, the structures now need to be put in place to allow it to develop. Schools as many are currently conceptualized and run will not do it. - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 - lisagustinelli lisagustinelli Feb 22, 2015Social Entrepreneurship embraces collaboration. It's about connecting people in new ways and in doing so influencing their career and the society as a whole. The rise of Social Media (Ashoka) enables the growth of ideas and innovations to help the greater good. The internet of things and a change in our society to global has influenced this movement as it facilitates connections between like-minded people with innovative ideas. Check out the incubator school in LAUSD: - mrskeeler mrskeeler Feb 23, 2015

Growing Focus on Measuring Learning
There is an increasing interest in using new sources of data for personalizing the learning experience, for ongoing formative assessment of learning, and for performance measurement; this interest is spurring the development of a relatively new field — data-driven learning and assessment. A key element of this trend is learning analytics, the application of web analytics, a science used by businesses to analyze commercial activities that leverages big data to identify spending trends and predict consumer behavior. Education is embarking on a similar pursuit into data science with the aim of learner profiling, a process of gathering and analyzing large amounts of detail about individual student interactions in online learning activities. The goal is to build better pedagogies, empower students to take an active part in their learning, target at-risk student populations, and assess factors affecting completion and student success. For learners, educators, and researchers, learning analytics is already starting to provide crucial insights into student progress and interaction with online texts, courseware, and learning environments used to deliver instruction. Data-driven learning and assessment will build on those early efforts. One of the many reasons why I like automated systems, as part of an overall emphasis on Learner Analytics. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 Depends on what is automated....!!!! That is why our existing examinations / testing systems are so bad - as what was easy to measure is what was counted. - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Yes, learning analytics are crucial insights. The concern is that this data-learning and assessment will become the drivers just like the current SAT, ACT, AP, etc. exams. We must be careful of the weight we place on performance measurement. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 13, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 Totally agree - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 I also agree. An alternative approach is to focus on Visual Learning instead of performance. - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015 Coming back to this because during a conversation about starting our own onine courses, the question of accreditation came up. Local government bodies are clueless where to even begin. Online learning is one of education's biggest opportunities, because, among other reasons, it enables poor, isolated and other people who normally couldn't attend school to do so. Accreditation is the challenge holding it back, and ironically (criminally?) it's educators who are stalling the accreditation movement.
- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 With all the technology and data available today, the quality of assessment can increase exponentially. Currently a main focus in my District. the ability to create electronic portfolios that inform daily instruction it critical. doesn't have to be web based... [- mnagler mnagler Feb 19, 2015mnagler] I think it is important to be conscious about the basic distinction between measurement on a systems Level on the one hand and measurement on an individual Level on the other hand. On a systems Level, the main Challenge is to use data from cross-regional or cross-national comparisons to address Challenges on a systems Level, not putting too much emphasis on comparisons between systems. On the Level of the individual learner, I think the main Challenge is to crack the code With regard to how we can integrate Learning analytics in a meaningful way as a tool for all learners.- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Feb 21, 2015 "Meaningful" being the crucial word here [user:deirdre.butler|1424632156]] We should also consider the potential impact of schools' BYOD policies on the collection of learning analytics; if it is used properly, we may get more precise data across real classrooms. BYOD also has a great potential to bridge learning analytics embedded in both formal and informal learning contexts; in terms of the students who have mobile devices, they usually use mobile devices a lot after school! - changcy changcy Feb 21, 2015 Where does the line of "big brother" stop .... I am wary of constantly gathering data as it can be just because we can rather than for a very defined and meaningful purpose. There also has to be spaces for people to pursue what they want without being tracked. Privacy has to be guarded and we are in danger of this being lost - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 I've been into "data" for much of my career and am still a bit stumped when someone uses the term "Learning Analytics." Is it analyzing what has been learn, how one learns or something else. When that use the term "data" are they only referring to quantitative data or qualitative data as well? How about data in the form of an artifact? I really think the education community needs to figure out what it means when it talks about Learning Analytics and data.- bobmoore bobmoore Feb 21, 2015 Here, here. Totally agree - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Agree! - mrskeeler mrskeeler Feb 23, 2015 - lisagustinelli lisagustinelli Feb 22, 2015Learning anylytics seems best suited to the sports coaches. While it has it's place in the classroom, most teachers do not want to have to be trained in yet another platform of assessment. With the popularity of Project Based Learning, this type of assessment is exactly what teachers have been fighting as these analytics do not study the whole child and leave little room for inquiry. I find the potential of learning analytics to be huge. An area I find very promising is the ability to look across the district rather than at the individual student level. For instance if benchmarks demonstrate a particular students achieving well, who all used the same online curriculum, videos, or other learning application, then ensuring all students at that grade level or class are provided that material, even if their teacher doesn't use that. That ability to quickly find curriculum pieces that are increasing student achievement, provide those to each and every child is a piece of learning analytics that gets away from the "big brother" concerns and provides immense potential. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015

Increasing Cross-Institution Collaboration
Collective action among schools and districts is growing in importance. More and more, institutions are joining consortia — associations of two or more organizations — to combine resources or to align themselves strategically with innovation in K-12 education. Today’s global environment is allowing schools to unite across international borders and work toward common goals concerning technology, research, or shared values. Support behind technology-enabled learning in classrooms has reinforced the trend toward open communities and school consortia, as educators and administrators recognize collective action as a sustainable method of supporting upgrades in technological infrastructure and IT services. ... Won't be much longer before people remember 3D virtual worlds. I've been pitching the 3D Global Village for years, and will do so again at the end of this month for Edu Day Guatemala. Because our school is part of a group of institutions consisting of two K-12s and three universities, I see this as a great opportunity to get K-12 and higher ed working together as well. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 I like these ideas, but we have to remember the realities of institutions such as K12 US public education. Collaboration between orgs is rare on a meaningful level.- bobmoore bobmoore Feb 21, 2015 The trend wording needs to be tweaked/changed - this is the K-12 report, not higher education or university. [Editor: Done] I agree with both comments above - we have the technology to join institutions for collaborative learning....however the reality is teachers and leaders do not fully understand how to use the technology for this purpose - either within their own school or across a group of schools. The ongoing 'walled garden' approach to the use of technology is alive and well. However the emergence of more online conferences and online teachmeets or Twitter chats provide opportunities for teachers personally to connect and collaborate - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015I couldn't agree more.- gtdeyoung gtdeyoung You're right David, collaboration across organizations is rare. How can we fix that? - mrskeeler mrskeeler Feb 23, 2015

Increasing Use of Hybrid/Blended Learning Designs
Over the past several years, perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favor as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. Drawing from best practices in online and face-to-face methods, blended learning is on the rise at schools. The affordances of blended learning offers are now well understood, and its flexibility, ease of access, and the integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies are high among the list of appeals. Recent developments of business models for universities are upping the ante of innovation in these digital environments, which are now widely considered to be ripe for new ideas, services, and products. While growing steadily, the recent focus in many education circles on the rapid rise and burnout of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has led to the view that these sorts of offerings may be fad-like. However, progress in learning analytics; adaptive learning; and a combination of cutting-edge asynchronous and synchronous tools will continue to advance the state of online learning and keep it compelling, though many of these methods are still the subjects of experiments and research by online learning providers and schools. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015 Online learning has proven itself as effective, but without an accreditation system it may soon fall out of favor. Once again, it's educators who are fighting the recognition of online courses/degrees. It's going to take government or business to step in and ensure that people with online degrees are eligible for the same recognition, opportunities, etc., as those who got their education the old-fashioned way. Nothing less than a Non-Discrimination Act is necessary, in my opinion. jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 Even more than distance learning, blended learning brings the face to face aspect that younger kids require. It is more effective in this age group. Blended learning models, apart form global collaborative projects and other global implementations, that I have seen focus on HS subjects and provide students a distance education opportunity to pass and gain entry to a higher institution. I do not see anything innovative or remarkable anywhere....yet. There is very little attempt at the K-12 or HS levels to create an online learning community, the MOOC opportunity is starting to drift down to HS levels - but needs a lot of adaptation to be relevant. Once again, social media and other innovative technologies such as virtual worlds are being avoided still - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015
Isn't blended learning just good teaching now? I find that the best classes I visit are classes with a rich online community for students with content, encouragement for students to upload/share their creative work, and participate with each other. I grow weary to see this separated any longer, in our District, the discussion revolves around this just being best teaching practice now. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015
Not a technology per se, and with some overlap with 1:1, but this framework of instruction is poised to be one of the most influential in recent history. There are issues with any discussion of blended learning, such as the dramatically divergant models that all fall under the umbrella, but a seamless integration of "traditional" instruction, digital content, and new instructional strategies (like gamification, project-based learning, and "Genius Hour" (based on Google 20% time)) is a recipe for success and something that districts can get started on now with a minimum number of devices available.- shorr shorr Feb 17, 2015 - apowell apowell Feb 20, 2015Yes....and with 'new courses' developing such as Big Data, drones, entrepreneurship, how to market your personal brand–YOU, and other emerging learning spaces, we need to view how blending learning and internships coupled with new technologies will become a part of the new narrative in education. I'm not sure how common core fits into this new educational landscape. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 18, 2015- Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ2.]
Increasing Use of Open Educational Resources
Defined by the Hewlett Foundation in 2002, open educational resources (OER) are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.” Momentum behind OER began early on, getting a major boost when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded the MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative in 2001, making MIT instruction materials for over 2,200 of its courses available online, free of charge. Soon after, prestigious universities including Carnegie Mellon University and Harvard University, among others, pushed forward their own open learning initiatives. Understanding that the term “open” is a multifaceted concept is essential to following this trend in higher education; often mistaken to simply mean “free of charge,” advocates of openness have worked towards a common vision that defines it more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but also in terms of ownership and usage rights. - kathyschrock kathyschrock Feb 13, 2015I feel, in order for despositories of learning objects to be useful, there needs to be an agreed upon taxonomy. The MarcoPolo/Thinkfinity project was a great model of that. It allowed disparate groups to post their content in the same format/DB structure and made it very easy to search across the content and combine elements needed. - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015 Excellent point. - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 - US Dept of Ed created the 'learning registry" that has not been fully realized. The concept includes vendors to try an focus development. Content needs to be 'cataloged' similar to a MARC record that libraries use, otherwise it cannot be searched. Think of all the free content available in itunes University- try finding something specific. Also the proliferation of 1:1 initiatives will make force content to become very granular- think lessons instead of units. [- mnagler mnagler Feb 19, 2015mnagler] - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015 -Agreed. A lack of sustainable OER integration strategy opens the door for commercial publishers to push their content through OER solutions (think Discovery Learning's Techbook) that allow commercial content to be presented through a particular platform. This "one stop" solution can bind educational organizations into relationships in which they are not only paying for out of date, limited format content but also left to their own devices to articulate new and legacy systems. It's going to take leadership on a federal level beyond Learning Registry (which has fallen a bit short of users' needs by almost everyone's standards) to really help OER take off. Curation is key here. Garbage in, garbage out. - marcia.mardis marcia.mardis Feb 22, 2015 -OER initiatives need also to consider that while the resources are free to the consumer, they are not free to the creator or the curator. Free may never be a reality; low cost may be. The question then becomes scale. At what point does OER use become widespread enough to justify producers' cost or users' willingness to pay something nominal? Since K-12 teachers are not on a "pay as you go" scheme, this problem is for ones higher up the educational food chain to consider. [user:marcia.mardis|1424659256]]- gtdeyoung gtdeyoung This also brings into play questions of copyright and intellectual property for not onlyt he author, but the teacher adapting and the student trying to build a portfolio. At present, we also "trust" the publishing companies to vet the information included in their resources. Are we going to "open-source" the vetting process as well as the material develops over time? [user:alex.podchaski|1424696611]] It was in the 2014 report, but I don't see it directly mentioned so far. With the proliferation of online and blended learning, open learning objects and repositories seem to be more and more necessary.- anton.inglese anton.inglese Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ2.]

Redesigning Learning Spaces
Some thought leaders believe that new forms of teaching and learning require new spaces for teaching and learning. More universities are helping to facilitate these emerging models of education, such as the flipped classroom, by rearranging learning environments to accommodate more active learning. Educational settings are increasingly designed to facilitate project-based interactions with attention to mobility, flexibility, and multiple device usage. Wireless bandwidth is being upgraded in institutions to create “smart rooms” that support web conferencing and other methods of remote, collaborative communication. Large displays and screens are being installed to enable collaboration on digital projects and informal presentations. As higher education continues to move away from traditional lecture-based programming and to more hands-on scenarios, university classrooms will start to resemble real-world work and social environments that facilitate organic interactions and cross-disciplinary problem solving. This is one of the simplest things a school can do. It'll be one of our first steps as we implement our STEM/STEAM Program. Amazing what a difference it can make...just getting rid of the lines of desks and substituting tables and chairs! - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 There are a lot of options to redesign. jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015 We also need to be more proactive in getting involved in the design of learning spaces. Rather than leave it up to architects to do this we need to be up front telling them what spaces we need and why. We currently had a new build at our university (Teacher education) and we fought to have the "computer labs" as they were referred to, be part of the Library building so they were seen not just as "classrooms" but as "learning spaces". The choice of furniture too is important (another battle) as was having open shared spaces for "making" things and working on projects using a range of technologies. We wanted the future teachers in K-12 to experience working in these environments so that they in turn could design exciting learning spaces for their students. - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 It seems there is some kind of actual fear of removing walls. We have some very old schools in our district. Now before the legislature is a bill on funding their rehab. Perhaps another idea would be to take down the schools and replace them with fewer Learning Centers. Placement of the centers might even impact re-zoning so there is not a concentration of high need students attending any specific neighborhood schools.- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 11, 2015 - kathyschrock kathyschrock Feb 13, 2015I love Don Orth's commonsense vision for learning spaces. All the components listed above are critical to the 'new' learning spaces. However, the trump card for redesigning is to change the role of the teacher as seen as the primary lecturer. We need students giving presentations and leading the class that may place the teacher's role as the support person (student aide). - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 16, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 Rather than an either or scenario, what about co-constructors of learning / learning partners - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Yes. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015- adrian_lim adrian_lim Feb 22, 2015 This is an essential part of rethinking learning. The space definitely influences how people think and act towards teaching and learning! - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 -computer labs out, SMALL labs in [- mnagler mnagler Feb 19, 2015mnagler] Agree - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015 Once again the above description applies to a university setting.....? This is the K-12 report therefore should be written largely in that context I think. Learning space design for online learning continues to be challenged by clunky management systems that do not resemble the fluency of social media tools. The virtual space for learning is often not just one place but can be a combination of places - and this is where all learners - teachers and students in K-12 are not comfortable with a handful of 'go to' places and tools. New pedagogical approach is the key here - as mentioned above - change the teacher's belief about using technology. - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 The notion of 'school' itself needs to be integrated into broader social architectures and networks so that the learning students undertake across spaces and places is recognised and rewarded - but also so that educators have the ability to more organically 'connect' to libraries, museums, galleries, design studios, laboratories, university spaces, online worlds... etc etc... 'School' should be both a state of mind and a network of specific material places and spaces. Teachers should curate students' learning experiences across these opportunities. - dezuanni dezuanni Feb 22, 2015 Our most successful schools have resulted from a start to finish collaboration with instruction, facilities. technology, and architects. Starting with the question of how do you want to teach has driven decisions ranging from flexible/easily movable furniture to Opening walls between classes to promote facilitator and student interactions between classes.Technology then becomes part of the process, not an afterthought.- mike.jamerson mike.jamerson Feb 22, 2015 NOt sure this goes here or re-thinking how schools work, but I see all of the technologies and pedagogies such as Online Learning changing the entire design to provide spaces where facilitators will present and collaborate with students that facilitate that collaboration - lighting, sound treatment, cameras.- mike.jamerson mike.jamerson Feb 22, 2015 [user:lisagustinelli|1424652250]]lisa This is huge! Companies like Cisco are expanding their devices to include telepresence. Teachers can give and record classes for local and international students. The physical space in a school fosters collaboration and innovation. The media center no longer is a place for books, but a place of research and also creation (makerspaces). Touchscreen displays allow students to present ideas as they work on projects together. St. Thomas Aquinas High school has installed a prototype innovation center of the future and is visited by CEO's of major technology providers.

Rethinking How Schools Work
There is a focused movement to reinvent the traditional classroom paradigm and rearrange the entire school experience — a trend that is largely being driven by the influence of innovative learning approaches. Methods such as project- and challenge-based learning call for school structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of the traditional bell schedule. Moreover, these novel arrangements encourage renovation of classroom layouts to with the express focus of facilitating more group interaction. Century old practices in which students learn subject by subject while uniformly facing the front of the classroom are perceived by many as an antiquated approach to teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary nature of project-based learning and other contemporary approaches has brought attention to innovative designs of the school atmosphere that link each class and subject matter to each other.. As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, some teachers and administrators believe that schedules should be more flexible to allow opportunities for more authentic learning to take place and ample room for independent study. Pretty much sums everything else up, doesn't it? I've been under pressure to give teachers bite- (byte-?) sized messages like ad slogans. My latest is The 5-Minute Rule. When you're establishing a project, you get a class (maybe two) to set everything up, but once it's underway you as the teacher DON'T TALK for more than five minutes. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 - Sam Sam Feb 13, 2015- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 This topic deserves an "Amen!" [user:michael.lambert|1424329545]]- adrian_lim adrian_lim Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 Breaking the Cycle of Failed School Reforms: jmorrison jmorrison Feb 20, 2015 Yes! Schools must offer interdisciplinary opportunities across learning areas and blended with f2f and online experiences. Innovative opportunities, such as 'social entrepreneurship, as a cross-curricula, global and community-enriched challenge-based learning experience. Students learn with others online globally and then make authentic connections with local groups to support community development.....'as Friedman says, 'glocalisation' - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 I think Rethinking How Schools Work is long overdue. I have never understood why we think it is ok to have children sit as much as we do. With blended learning, BYOD, improved networks, it will be great to open up the school walls. Still important to have teachers as leader/facilitator but amazing what our students can do when they are passionate about the subject. We tried the 20% rule in one of our classes year. On Friday students can work on any topic they would like and present at the end of the semester. The topics they selected, the tools they used, what they learned and what we learned about them was amazing. It worked so well we are actually offering a "Design Your Own Course" for 2015-2016. - kayj kayj Feb 22, 2015 Sounds great would love to hear more about what the students did - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 22, 2015 There are already models of school that are outside the box thinking - great books model, homeschool models, along with project based learning and other more recent attempts at redesigning school. Has there ever been a study that looks at common trends and outcomes across existing and new models, and could we leverage that to create differentiated schooling, not just differentiated learning? [user:alex.podchaski|1424697702]]alex.podchaski

Rise of New Forms of Multidisciplinary Studies
According to the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, multidisciplinary research refers to concurrent exploration and activities in seemingly disparate fields. Digital humanities and computational social science research approaches are opening up pioneering areas of multidisciplinary research at libraries and innovative forms of scholarship and publication. Researchers, along with academic technologists and developers, are breaking new ground with data structures, visualization, geospatial applications, and innovative uses of open-source tools. At the same time, they are pioneering new forms of scholarly publication that combine traditional static print style scholarship with dynamic and interactive tools, which enables real-time manipulation of research data. Applying quantitative methods to traditionally qualitative disciplines has led to new research categories such as Distant Reading and Macroanalysis — the study of large corpuses of texts as opposed to close reading of a few texts. These emerging areas could lead to exciting new developments in education, but effective organizational structures will need to be in place to support this collaboration. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015Continuing on the interdisciplinary discussion, though not directly related to only technology, the IB will mandate in 2015-16 that all Middle Years Program (MYP) schools must include and Inter Disciplinary Unit (IDU). For mine, this has an improved impact on technology because rather than creating 'trinkets' in Design classes using 3D printers and laser cutters, I may be creating city layouts/buildings the students designed around the urban requirements learnt in a geography/humanities class. IDUs will reinforce the interconnectivity of technology and hopefully in a more authentic way.- mtaylor mtaylor Feb 22, 2015 I am not sure integrating technology into a field counts as Interdisciplinary. Just because we use a new tool to view things in a different way doesn't mean the new tools bring a field into study. We use 3D printing in a class project on Egypt, and while the results are unique and students learn how to make 3D prints, we have not added to their knowledge in a new way about Egypt.- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski Feb 23, 2015alex.podchaski

Shift from Students as Consumers to Students as Creators
A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice in schools all over the world as students in across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning.
- davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015 Yes, the Maker Movement..Makerspaces...which I believe deserves a category all it own. jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 This is a shift that needs to become mainstream urgently! - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Creative storytelling with digital technologies is a key instance of learning by doing, rather than consumption of content. Students increasingly tell their own stories to complement their consumption of stories at the cinema, on television or on YouTube. The Media Arts movement exemplified through examples like Australia's the inclusion of Media Arts in the national Arts Curriculum demonstrates how this approach can be central to curriculum design. - dezuanni dezuanni Feb 20, 2015 This shift can be easily linked or integrated with the shift to deeper learning approaches described directly below. When students have voice in what and how they create / apply knowledge, this is the doing of deeper learning. Michael Fullan and I disccss it in how new pedagogies find deep learning - maria maria Feb 20, 2015 While I struggle to find a district doing this across the board, the move to students as creators is seen in the long student film festival legacy. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015 I also think we need to add "teachers" to the shift .. they should be co-creators along with students - Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015 -good point [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler]Absolutely - gtdeyoung gtdeyoung Totally agree....teachers must be expected to create and co-create using digital technologies as well as the students. Collaborative planning, implementation, design....that leads to effective co-creation. This must go hand-in-hand with how to publish, share and license all new works (creative Commons). - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 Totally agree, the shift won't happen without teachers - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Agree as well - kayj kayj Feb 22, 2015 Indeed. So many avenues for teachers to create. From simply authoring curriculum in an LMS to creating their own videos. Some of the new resources for embedding questions within videos seem to get teacher very excited. Even though it's not cutting edge or ground breaking it does get them experimenting more. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015

Shift to Deeper Learning Approaches
There is a new emphasis in the classroom on deeper learning approaches, defined by the Alliance for Excellent Education as the delivery of rich core content to students in innovative ways that allow them to learn and then apply what they have learned. Project-based Learning, Problem-Based Learning, Inquiry-Based Learning, Challenge-Based Learning and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets and smartphones are more readily accepted in schools, educators are leveraging these tools, which students already use, to connect the curriculum with real life applications. These active learning approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. The hope is that if learners can connect the course material with their own lives and their surrounding communities, then they will become more excited to learn and immerse themselves in the subject matter.
Yes, we need to give students more experiences and move beyond the sit-talk-listen domain. Let's create a classroom space that demonstrates a thinking-experience-inquire environment. Students want an environment that pushes/nurtures play, mobility, pioneering, flexible space, etc. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 14, 2015 - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 - dsilva dsilva Feb 19, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 20, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- dsilva dsilva Feb 23, 2015 - jon.k.price jon.k.price Feb 20, 2015Perhaps its simply semantics, but I like how "Approaches" is included in this section. To me this reflects the need for teacher preparation programs - not just the "Deeper Learning" applications. This attention on teacher preparation must be acknowledged as students already differentiate meaningless vs relevant tasks. Teachers need to be able to plan & facilitate these Deeper Learning approaches better. Agree completely with Jon - that teacher professional learning is essential. And their capacity to design deep learning opportunities that allow students to use technology to create (linked to students as creators). - maria maria Feb 20, 2015 Teacher preparation and ongoing professional learning is paramount. If teachers are expected to design deep learning experiences for their students they need to engage in "deep" learning themselves. How can this happen if traditional preparation programmes prevails or if existing teachers beliefs and assumptions about learning are never challenged? A supportive sustainable culture needs to be developed in schools and across educational systems that encourages risk taking and the development of deep learning environments / approaches. The New Pedagogies for Deep Learning partnership is trying to do this - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 -the issue will be how these learning approaches are assessed. They can be very powerful; but need to be designed as to inform standards [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler] Problem / Project-based learning is necessary as well as teachers preparation for this approach. - nada4web nada4web Feb 21, 2015 Yes, very important trend - but cannot be discussed in isolation from assessment practices (unfortunately). Often engaged learning takes place as an 'add-on' to what is 'important' for assessment. - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. Totally agree with this idea - kayj kayj Feb 22, 2015 Deeper Learning goes hand-in-hand with Universal Design for Learning. Both speak to the what, why, and how of learning.- mike.jamerson mike.jamerson Feb 22, 2015
This, coupled with interdisciplinary studies, seems to be more of what teachers are turning to in response to common core standards. That, coupled with research that students are more successful and engaged when students take agency for their work. This is a very interesting and promising trend.- anton.inglese anton.inglese Feb 22, 2015 Outdoor Activities. This might be standalone topic or part of many others. Outdoor activities shows that tehnology is not just for "inside". There are already lots of Apps that can be used, and with hope that will be more ( Great example is University of Madison project Sustainable U ( - nada4web nada4web Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ2.]

Added as a New Trend to RQ3

Growing Focus on Gender Sensitivity
Leveraging technology to empower women and girls - It's the theme for next week's Mobile Learning Week event sponsored by UNESCO and UN Women. The same theme is headed state-side as part of an international event hosted by CoSN in March. Many projects are targeting girls - Technovation Challenge and Girls Make Games for example. And it's been the topic of many articles along with advertising campaigns. Gender-sensitivity in teaching and teaching strategies is increasingly a topic that is gaining world-wide focus. The New Yorker Article. USA Today. Cool Mom Tech. Geek Wire Article. #likeagirl ad campaign. - kstubbs kstubbs Feb 18, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Don't forget Goldiblox - cbsteighner cbsteighner Feb 22, 2015 Technovation is a gamechanger for sure giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015I see this as a major focus moving forward- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski Feb 23, 2015alex.podchaski

Increasing Use of Collaborative Learning Approaches
(medium-term) In Europe, collaborative learning, by both teachers and learners, is rising up the policy priority scale and can accelerate technology uptake. Still not widespread in schools (around 40 percent of grade 11 students engage in collaborative work at least once a week, as evidenced by the Survey of schools: ICT in education, European Commission, 2013, such an approach - if carefully organised, with appropriate assessment, and trained teachers - can have major benefits, e.g. uptake of technology, promote active problem-solving learning, involve all learners, improve learning outcomes and develop key competences. As a European Commission Call for proposals recently put it: " Many research studies have demonstrated that pupils in cooperative learning environments perform significantly better than those in competitive or individualistic situations. Collaborative approaches to teaching and learning have proved effective in improving student engagement and student achievements for all learners, and specifically for disadvantaged students who are more at risk of low achievement in basic skills and early school leaving. Research also highlights the benefits of collaboration among teachers both for their own professional development and for the development of a school culture based on shared responsibilities and values. Classroom practices based on group settings, where learners collaborate as an explicit part of the learning environment; interdisciplinary teaching, which requires collaboration among teachers; out-of-school activities more systematically integrated in the curriculum (which implies establishing stable contacts with a wide range of actors around the school) and involvement of the broader surrounding community as a partner in children's education are some examples of collaborative practices which can have a positive impact on the learning conditions of all students." ( Examples can be found in the iTEC and Creative Classroom Lab projects (, Collaborative learning is not easy so it's also a challenge - it requires good teaching to help students and parents see that the process and outcomes are worth the effort and that kids aren't coasting or wasting time. - roger.blamire roger.blamire Feb 17, 2015 - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Feb 23, 2015 The ITL Research project - in eight countries from Senegal to Finland and Australia - also provided strong evidence that teacher collaboration within a school is the number one variable predicting the level of innovative teaching in a school overall. Collaboration of students, peer learning, feedback cycles - all of this is also supported by John Hattie's Visible Learning the meta-analysis of learning outcomes. -not sure who posted that last section, but I want to reiterate it - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 I'd reiterate the ITL research, too. I'm using this research personally and find it very promising with our 1:1.- anton.inglese anton.inglese Feb 22, 2015 This video on 'collaborative intelligence' came to me today There are many advantages to technology-infused collaboration, once again teachers need to practice and model this for their students. This must also lead to extended local and global collaborative opportunities for learning. - lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Increasing Online Global Collaboration (I see this as being placed under the 'Digital Strategies' umbrella as it is not a technology per se but an approach to teaching and learning while using digital technologies, as is 'flipped learning' and 'blended learning'). Definition: Online global collaboration broadly refers to geographically dispersed educators, classrooms, schools and other learning environments that use online technologies to learn with others beyond their immediate environment in order to support curricular objectives, intercultural understandings, critical thinking, personal and social capabilities and ICT capabilities. In addition......Innovative pedagogies are emerging to support online global collaboration and new tools, specifically Web 2.0 technology tools are continuing to develop to support learners to connect, communicate, collaborate, and co-create or co-produce. This area of online digital technology use is not as widely understood or implemented as is 'flipped' ideals but is becoming more important each year as students and teachers across the world get better access to technologies that will allow them to connect and collaborate beyond their immediate learning environment. This blog post (please disregard the promotion for Flat Connections) helps to share how important this is and barriers and enablers for K-12 learning: This article shares some background: Dillenbourg, P., Järvelä, S. & Fischer, F. (2009). The evolution of research on computer-supported collaborative learning. Technology-enhanced learning, 3-19. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9827-7_rnal of Compute1 This paper also 'sets the scene' Laurillard, D. (2009). The pedagogical challenges to collaborative technologies. International Jour-Supported Collaborative Learning, 4(1), 5-20. doi: 10.1007/s11412-008-9056-2 See also 'Flat Students - Flat Learning - Global Understanding'
- lindsay.julie lindsay.julie Feb 21, 2015 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 22, 2015 - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ2.]
Rise of STEAM Learning
As promised, I'm adding "STEM/STEAM" as both a trend (opportunity?) and a challenge. Let's see which category it winds up in, if not both. ;) Most important thing to happen in education since the invention of the blackboard and chalk. It'd be great if we could get another push from the White House for this: - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 This definitely needs to be a topic! - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015- agreed [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler] - also agree - nada4web nada4web Feb 21, 2015 agree - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015- giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015- dsilva dsilva Feb 23, 2015

Weaving Research-Based Standards into Ed Tech Development
Edtech companies are largely driven by client/educator request, yet busy educators do not have time to research (and thus request) the best practices for edtech design, leaving research often out of the production loop. Example of why this is a problem: Focus group research has shown the report format users report preferring can be the opposite of the format they most accurately interpret (Hattie, 2010). Research-based standards can thus be used to inform edtech design. E.g., data systems can adhere to Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) and Over-the-Counter Data Standards, LMSs can adhere to Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI) specifications, edtech assessment tools can consider the Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement, AERA Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, and Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education Reporting and Interpreting Test Results as appropriate, etc. - drjrankin drjrankin Feb 9, 2015 - jon.k.price jon.k.price Feb 20, 2015Yes, see also, CAST Universal Design for Learning ( ) EdTech is consumer driven just like any other market. Until teachers and other educators demand this shift it will be difficult to realize.- bobmoore bobmoore Feb 21, 2015
I find this very interesting and promising, but I'm not sure what the trend is exactly. It it standards for research data collection, research reporting standards, or standards for practice that are research-based?- anton.inglese anton.inglese Feb 22, 2015

Added as a Challenge to RQ4

Increasing Need for Just-in-Time Professional Development

A survey of 600 K-12 teachers revealed 50% of teachers report inadequate support for using technology in the classroom, and 46% report they lack the training needed to use technology successfully to help students (Piehler, 2014): While training is vital, we cannot put all the responsibility of improved edtech use on the educators themselves, especially since edtech can do much to alieve this burden. E.g.., read point #2 at Edtech can embed a help system (with lessons & videos concerning how to use the tool), supplemental documentation, and more to support educators, as covered within the Over-the-Counter Data Standards (a synthesis of over 300 studies and other expert texts on best practices for ed. data reporting): E.g., a shorter, targeted manual or user-friendly help system caused users to need 40% less training time and to successfully complete 50% more tasks (van der Meij, 2008): - drjrankin drjrankin Feb 9, 2015 I like this. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 9, 2015 Good analytical data that proves this should be a key trend. PD opportunities should not targeted a mass crowd or an entire school section, it should be provided in little pieces with reinforcement sessions. As a personal experience in my international school in Qatar, we approach key educators in each grade level with all the necessary information to sharpen their skills so we can spread the "edtech" view. Many educators respond positively when another educator is effectively using the technology and not a techie. - dsilva dsilva Feb 16, 2015 We have several online, blended and face to face opportunities for our teachers to have the time to actually learn how to best integrate technologies to support student learning. These sessions are supported by multiple trainers so everyone gets the assistance they need to be able to implement the strategies in their classroom by the end of the session. This supported PD is very important meeting 21st century student learning/skills.- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 - jon.k.price jon.k.price Feb 20, 2015Agree - see my comment above. We have implemented some of the ideas in our pre-service teacher PD program, which incorporates TPACK into science teacher preparation courses. - changcy changcy Feb 21, 2015 I believe the coach model is the best. We've adapted the Cotsen Foundation model to bring technology coaches to the school. The results are incredible. The teachers working with the coaches begin to use technology at a high level, then pass that onto their teaching grade level or subject partners. By far, this is the best PD model I've been involved in throughout 20 years of education PD. - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015- gtdeyoung gtdeyoung [Editor's Note: Great points! This reads more like a challenge and will be added to RQ4.]

Combined with Existing Ed Tech Topics in RQ1

3D Video (should be 3D Content)
The newest incarnation of visualization tools involves 3D. 3D—originally a trademark of the artisan’s stall, the architect’s bench, the gamer’s console, the blockbuster cinema, or the engineer’s display—is rapidly moving to the sandbox of learning, hashtag, the classroom. We are now designing, visualizing, and making in 3D. Supportive resources include: and Picture This: Increasing Math and Science Learning by Improving Spatial Thinking. - len.scrogan len.scrogan Feb 17, 2015 Yes! - michael.lambert michael.lambert Feb 18, 2015 - dsilva dsilva Feb 19, 2015 This is a growing trend that addresses very important aspects of learning. - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015 -love this article about it [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler] - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Great Point! This will be added to RQ1 topic "3D Video.]

IoT and Sensors adrian_lim adrian_lim Feb 22, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added to existing RQ1 topic "Networked Objects."]

C'mon, this has to be on the list! Folks at our school keep getting this confused with STEAM. Gotta do another PD session on STEAM, soon. This article pretty much sums it up, "Why the Maker Movement Is Important to [Your Country's] Future:" - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 15, 2015 - crompton crompton Feb 17, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Feb 17, 2015 - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Feb 18, 2015- adrian_lim adrian_lim Feb 22, 2015AGREE!!!!!! - digitalroberto digitalroberto Feb 22, 2015 There is a link between Libraries, Makerspaces and 21st Century Skills. Makerspaces are mentor-led environments, different concept from STEM/STEAM. Checkout this resource - dsilva dsilva Feb 19, 2015- Holly.Lu Holly.Lu Feb 21, 2015 - New Jersey Librarian Laura Fleming has done a lot on this topic [- mnagler mnagler Feb 21, 2015mnagler] Do they have to be mutually exclusive ?? - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler Feb 22, 2015 Edutopia has a whole session on the Maker Movement and that can help many educators get started - giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015 Its funny how a catchy name makes something as old as the ages vogue again. If that's what is needed all power to makerspaces. Many of the international schools always have included the creation of physical products as part of Design, whether this be in resistant materials, food or computer. Most Australian and English schools still have well developed Design Technology workshops that cater for so called 'makerspace'. The off shoot I think from makerspace may well be a rekindling of skills such as technical drawing by either computer (CAD) or hand drawn using tools such as set squares and t-squares. Having recently dabbled again in drawing of this kind, the intrinsic and extrinsic enjoyment of students was quite pleasing to observe. [user:mtaylor|1424647002]] My biggest question on Makerspaces - while I love and support the topic - isn't this just project-based learning with a STEM focus?- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski Feb 23, 2015alex.podchaski [Editor's Note: Makerspaces is already an edtech topic in RQ1, so the discussions here will be added to RQ1.]

Other Key Points and Links
Growth of Visual Teaching and Learning
The long term trend of visual teaching and learning (as strategy and technology) has long been with us. But recent brain research has brought new life to this important aspect of learning and technology enabling. In fact each of the categories found in the RQ1 discussion topic list under visualization (including one that was miscategorized and another that was forgotten) fit under the rubric of visual teaching and learning.

Increasing Interest in Social and Emotional Learning
I think we should keep our eyes open for an increased interest in Social and Emotional learning and the skills that will matter for the future of our students. Edutopia has a large collection of links and readings on the matter .The studies that have been published by the OECD and The Ayrton Senna Instititute about Social and Emotional development and the school learning are also worth reading - giselle.santos giselle.santos Feb 22, 2015

Rethinking Minimum Viable Courses The concept of the minimum viable product has been around for years. The Minimum Viable Course means classes could be produced in segments, with the topics of extreme interest up front...possibly with none to follow. Plenty of prototyping or wireframing tools to choose from. Imagine courses with no intros, no summations..."Just the facts, ma'am." ;) - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Feb 8, 2015 [Editor's note: While this idea is intriguing, and while it is easy to find information on minimum viable products, there is really no evidence we could find of this as an educational trend yet.]

Retired Trends from Previous NMC Horizon Projects

  • Digital Delivery is Increasingly the Norm (combined with Blended/Hybrid Learning Trend)
  • Evolution of Online Learning (combined with Hybrid Learning Trend) Growing Ubiquity of Social Media (Social Media is a tech topic)
  • Importance of Content Curation
  • Increasing Preference for Personal Technology (overlaps too much with BYOD)
  • Reinvention of the Personal Computer